Seabuckthorn is a deciduous, dioecious shrub, usually spinescent, reaching 2 – 4 m in height. How high is Seabuckthorn It has brown or black rough bark and a thick grayish-green crown. Leaves are alternate, narrow, and lanceolate with a silvergrey colour on the upper side.
The sex of seedlings cannot be ascertained until they start to flower. Flower buds are formed mostly on one-year old wood, differentiated during the previous growing season. The male inflorescence consists of four to six apetalous flowers. The female inflorescence usually consists of one single apetalous flower with one ovary and one ovule.
The plant depends entirely on the wind for pollination, neither the male nor the female flower have nectaries, so do not attract insects. The plant bears foliage from April to November, flowers in June-July and has red, yellow or orange coloured berries from August to April. Seabuckthorn is a wind-pollinated plant, it can be propagated by air seeding, sowing, hardwood, softwood or root cuttings. However only the latter three methods will produce plants with the same genotype as the parent plant.
Seabuckthorn was originated in Himalayan montain regions, and then spread to other parts of the world. At present Seabuckthorn grows naturally in cold regions of countries like Russia, UK, Germany, Finland, France.
It is highly adaptable to varying and extreme conditions, including temperatures ranging from -43°C to +40°C, drought, high altitudes, salinity, alkalinity and inundation. Due to its exceptional hardiness Seabuckthorn is an ideal plant for natural resource conservation in extreme and marginal areas.